Many houses are constructed as a framed structure because of its strength, faster construction, and feasibility to rebuilt over the existing structure. In this article, we are going to discuss how to construct a house in India. This article will be very useful for the new clients and entry-level engineers or anyone who wants to understand different process and steps involved in the construction of the house in India.
Engineers and Architects
In India, Most of the houses are built by engineers where they act as architect, contractors and everything. Only in few bigger projects architects will be involved. Architects are good in proper utilization of spaces and in giving a good aesthetic look to the house.
Needs and specifications
First, Client will discuss with the engineer about his needs, and engineer will suggest ideas and possibilities to construct a house in India. After they have some idea of the type of the house, built up area, no of rooms and other utilization, the engineer will give a rough estimate of the cost and time of completion of the project.
- Engineer and Client will visit (RECON) the site to study the site.
- Then, Site clearance will be performed to remove the stones, plants etc..,
- Then, the site will be leveled and compacted. Now the site is ready for construction.
Preparation of Plan to construct house in India
- Engineer (or architect) will prepare the best plan to construct a house in India which fulfills the client needs.
- The engineer will decide the specifications.
- Then a “plan blueprint” will be created and sent to the local government body like the panchat union, municipality or corporation for getting approval. Blueprint plan will contain Plan, section and elevation of the house along with site plan, septic tank details, area details, sizes of items like doors, windows and ventilators and area details like plot area, built up area etc..,
Design of cross section and reinforcements
- The engineer will prepare the structural design of the structure by following design procedures, National Building code(NBC), IS456 codebook. Many experienced engineers use empirical methods construct a house in India.
- Sizes of the different members like beams, columns, depth of foundation, thickness of floors etc.., will be designed.
- Reinforcement details like the number of bars, size of bars and spacing of bars will be designed. Reinforcement design is very important because improper design could result in collapse or in higher cost.
- Then, the Plumping plan and the electrical plan will be prepared.
Understanding transfer of loads in framed building
Slabs and floors carry the weight of the furniture, people etc., load from the slab will be transferred to the beams and the load from the beams will be transferred to the columns. Columns will carry the total load of the structure to the footings and finally footings will distribute the load to the soil. Walls should only carry the self-weight. Load from beam should not be transferred to walls.
Construction of foundation
- Performing marking on the land for excavation purpose to construct foundation is called foundation marking.
- Places to be excavated for column footings, grade beams (column belt) will be marked using threads, white powder and pegs.
- Minimum depth of column foundation is 5 feet (1.5m), and Minimum footing dimension is 3feet length (1m) and 3 feet breath.
- After excavation, sand will be filled for at least 6 inches and the PCC concrete mat will be provided.
- Above the concrete mat, column reinforcement will be provided and then footing will be casted.
- Then the column will be constructed up to grade beam level (column belt).
Construction of wall and column
Grade beam will be constructed just below the ground level with 1 feet depth and 9 inches breath connecting all columns. Grade beam will act as the foundation for the wall. The column will be continued to be constructed up to beam level. Walls with 9-inch width for the main wall will be constructed above the grade beam, with provisions for windows, doors, ventilators etc., which will be fixed later.
——-will be continued on request through comments